September 1, 2019 1

Samanid Empire | Wikipedia audio article

Samanid Empire | Wikipedia audio article


The Samanid Empire (Persian: سامانیان‎,
Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate,
or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999. The empire was centered
in Khorasan and Transoxiana during its existence; at its greatest extent, the empire encompassed
all of today’s Afghanistan, large parts of Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,
Kyrgyzstan, and parts of Kazakhstan and Pakistan.The Samanid state was founded by four brothers;
Nuh, Ahmad, Yahya, and Ilyas—each of them ruled their own territory under Abbasid suzerainty.
In 892, Isma’il ibn Ahmad (892–907) united the Samanid state under one ruler, thus effectively
putting an end to the feudal system used by the Samanids. It was also under him that the
Samanids became independent of Abbasid authority. The Samanid Empire is part of the Iranian
Intermezzo, which saw the creation of a Persianate culture and identity that brought Iranian
speech and traditions into the fold of the Islamic world. This would lead to the formation
of the Turko-Persian culture.The Samanids promoted the arts, giving rise to the advancement
of science and literature, and thus attracted scholars such as Rudaki, Ferdowsi, and Avicenna.
While under Samanid control, Bukhara was a rival to Baghdad in its glory. Scholars note
that the Samanids revived Persian language and culture more than the Buyids and the Saffarids,
while continuing to patronize Arabic for sciences as well as the religious studies. They considered
themselves to be descendants of Sasanian Empire. In a famous edict, Samanid authorities declared
that “here, in this region, the language is Persian, and the kings of this realm are Persian
kings.”==
History=====Origins===
The eponymous ancestor of the Samanid dynasty was Saman Khuda, a Persian noble who belonged
to a dehqan family, which was a class of land-owning magnates. The original home of the Samanids
is unclear, for some Arabic and Persian texts claim that the name was derived from a village
near Samarkand, while others assert it was a village near Balkh or Tirmidh. The latter
is more probable since the earliest appearance of the Samanid family appears to be in Khorasan
rather than Transoxiana. In some sources the Samanids claimed to be descended from the
noble Mihran family of Bahram Chobin, whereas one author claimed that they belonged to the
Turkish Oghuz tribe, although this is most unlikely. Originally a Zoroastrian, Saman
Khuda converted to Islam during the governorship of Asad ibn Abdallah al-Qasri in Khorasan,
and named his oldest son as Asad in the governor’s honour. In 819, the governor of Khorasan,
Ghassan ibn Abbad, rewarded the four sons of Asad for their aid against the rebel Rafi
ibn al-Layth; Nuh received Samarkand; Ahmad received Farghana; Yahya received Shash; and
Ilyas received Herat. This marked the beginning of the Samanid dynasty.===Rise=======The Samanid branch in Herat (819–857)
====Ilyas died in 856, and was succeeded by his
son Ibrahim ibn Ilyas—the Tahirid governor of Khorasan, Muhammad ibn Tahir, thereafter
appointed him as the commander of his army, and sent him on an expedition against the
Saffarid ruler Ya’qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar in Sistan. He was defeated at a battle near
Pushang in 857, and fled to Nishapur, where he was captured by Ya’qub al-Saffar and sent
to Sistan as a hostage. The Tahirids thereafter assumed direct control over Herat.====The Samanid branches in Transoxiana (819–892)
====In 839/40, Nuh seized Isfijab from the nomadic
pagan Turks living in the steppe. He thereafter had a wall constructed around the city to
protect it from their attacks. He died in 841/2—his two brothers Yahya and Ahmad,
were then appointed as the joint rulers of the city by the Tahirid governor of Khorasan.
After Yahya’s death in 855, Ahmad took control over Châch, thus becoming the ruler of most
of Transoxiana. He died in 864/5; his son Nasr I received Farghana and Samarkand, while
his other son Ya’qub received Châch (areas around modern Tashkent/Chachkent). Meanwhile,
the Tahirids authority had significantly weakened after suffering several defeats by the Saffarid
ruler Ya’qub al-Saffar, thus losing their grip over the Samanids, who became more or
less independent. Nasr I used this opportunity to strengthen his authority by sending his
brother Isma’il to Bukhara, which was in an unstable condition after suffering from raids
by the Afrighid dynasty of Khwarazm. When Isma’il reached the city, he was warmly received
by its inhabitants, who saw him as one who could restore order. Although the Bukhar Khudahs
continued to autonomously rule in Bukhara for a few more years.
After not so long, disagreement over where tax money should be distributed, started a
conflict between the brothers. Isma’il was eventually victorious in the dynastic struggle,
and took control of the Samanid state. However, Nasr had been the one who had been invested
with Transoxiana, and the Abbasid caliphs continued to recognize him as the rightful
ruler. Because of this, Isma’il continued to recognize his brother as well, but Nasr
was completely powerless, a situation that would continue until his death in August 892.===Final unification and height of power
(892–907)===A few months later, Ya’qub al-Saffar also
died and was succeeded by his brother Amr ibn al-Layth, who saw himself as the heir
of the Tahirids, thus claiming Transoxiana, Khorasan and other parts of Iran for himself.
He thereafter forced the Abbasid caliph to recognize him as the ruler of those territories,
which they did. In the spring of 900, he clashed with Isma’il near Balkh, but was defeated
and taken to captivity. Isma’il thereafter sent him Baghdad, where he was executed. Isma’il
was thereafter recognized as the ruler of all of Khorasan and Transoxiana by the caliph.
Furthermore, he also received the investiture over Tabaristan, Ray and Isfahan. It was also
during this period that the Afrighid dynasty was forced into submission.Before his major
victory against the Saffarids, he had made various expeditions in Transoxiana; in 892,
he put an end to the Principality of Ushrusana by seizing of all of its lands. During the
same period, he put an end to the Bukhar Khudas in Bukhara. In 893, he invaded the territories
of the Karluk Turks, taking Talas and converting the Nestorian church there into a mosque.In
900, Isma’il sent an army under Muhammad ibn Harun al-Sarakhsi against Muhammad ibn Zayd,
the Zaydi ruler of Tabaristan and Gorgan. The invasion was successful; Muhammad ibn
Zayd was killed and Tabaristan was conquered by the Samanids. However, Muhammad ibn Harun
shortly revolted, making Isma’il himself invade the region the following year. Muhammad ibn
Harun thereafter fled to Daylam, while Isma’il reconquered Tabaristan and Gorgan. In 901,
Amr Saffari was defeated at the battle of Balkh by the Samanids, which reduced the Saffarid
dynasty to a minor tributary in Sistan. It was during this period that the Samanids were
at their height of power, ruling as far as Qazvin in west and Peshawar in the east.
Isma’il is known in history as a competent general and a strong ruler; many stories about
him are written in Arabic and Persian sources. Furthermore, because of his campaigns in north,
his empire was so safe from enemy incursions that the defences of Bukhara and Samarkand
were unused. However, this later had consequences; at the end of the dynasty, the earlier strong,
but now falling apart walls, were greatly missed by the Samanids, who were constantly
under attack by the Karakhanids and other enemies.Isma’il died in November 907, and
was succeeded by his son Ahmad Samani (r. 907–914).===Intermediate period (907–961)===
Not long after his accession, Ahmad invaded Sistan; by 911, Sistan was under complete
Samanid control, and Ahmad’s cousin Abu Salih Mansur was appointed as its governor. Meanwhile,
an Alid named Hasan al-Utrush was slowly re-establishing Zaydi over Tabaristan. In 913, Ahmad sent
an army under Muhammad ibn Sa’luk to deal with him. Although the Samanid army was much
larger, Hasan managed to emerge victorious. Ahmad, before he could plan another expedition
to Tabaristan, was the following year murdered by some of his slaves in a tent near Bukhara.
During his reign, Ahmad is also said to have replaced the language of the court from Persian
to Arabic, which made him unpopular among his subjects, and forced him to change it
back to Persian. After Ahmad’s death, his eight-year-old son Nasr II (r. 914–943)
succeeded him. Due to Nasr’s youth, his prime minister Abu
‘Abd-Allah al-Jaihani took care over most of the state affairs. Jaihani was not only
an experienced administrator, but also a prominent geographer and greatly educated man. Almost
right after Nasr II had ascended the throne, several revolts erupted, the most dangerous
one being under the uncle of his father, Ishaq ibn Ahmad, who seized Samarkand and began
minting coins there, while his son Abu Salih Mansur seized Nishapur and several cities
in Khorasan. Ishaq was eventually defeated and captured, while Abu Salih Mansur died
of natural causes in 915. Some time later Nasr II once again had to deal with rebels;
in 919, the governor of Khorasan, Husayn ibn Ali Marvarrudhi, rebelled against Samanid
authority. Nasr responded by sending an army under Ahmad ibn Sahl to suppress the rebellion,
which the latter managed to accomplish. After a few weeks, however, Ahmad shortly rebelled
himself at Nishapur, made incursions into Gorgan, and then fortified himself in Merv
to avoid a Samanid counter-attack. Nevertheless, the Samanid general Hamuya ibn Ali managed
to lure Ahmad out of Merv, and defeated him in a battle at Marw al-Rudh; he was captured
and imprisoned in Bukhara, where he remained until his death in 920.
In the west, Nasr II clashed several times with Daylamite and Gilite rulers; In 921,
the Zaydids under the Gilite ruler Lili ibn al-Nu’man invaded Khorasan, but were defeated
by the Simjurid general Simjur al-Dawati. Later in 930, a Dailamite military leader,
Makan ibn Kaki, seized Tabaristan and Gurgan, and even took possession of Nishapur in western
Khorasan. He was, however, forced to withdraw back to Tabaristan one year later, due to
the threat that Samanids posed. Makan then returned to Tabaristan, where he was defeated
by the Ziyarid ruler Mardavij, who managed to conquer the region. In 935, Nasr II re-established
Samanid control in Gurgan and made Mardavij’s successor Vushmgir his vassal. However, in
939 he declared independence, but was defeated the following year at Iskhabad.
In 943 several Samanid army officers, angry at Nasr’s support of Isma’ili missionaries,
formed a conspiracy to murder him. Nasr’s son Nuh I, however, learned of the conspiracy.
He went to a banquet designed to organize the plot and had the head of their leader
cut off. To appease the other officers, he promised to stop the Isma’ili missionaries
from continuing their activities. He then convinced his father to abdicate, who died
of tuberculosis after a few months.Right when Nuh I ascended the throne, a revolt erupted
in Khwarazm, which he managed to suppress. Later in 945, he had to deal with the Muhtajid
ruler Abu ‘Ali Chaghani, who refused to relinquish his post as governor of Khorasan to Ibrahim
ibn Simjur. Abu ‘Ali Chaghani then rebelled, and was joined by several prominent figures
such as Abu Mansur Muhammad, whom he appointed as his commander-in-chief. In 947, he installed
Nuh’s uncle Ibrahim ibn Ahmad as amir in Bukhara. Abu ‘Ali Chaghani then returned to his domains
in Chaghaniyan. Ibrahim, however, was unpopular with the people of Bukhara, and Nuh soon retaliated
by retaking the city and blinding Ibrahim and two brothers.
When the news of the re-capture of Bukhara arrived to Abu Ali Chaghani, he once again
marched towards Bukhara, but was defeated by an army sent by Nuh and withdrew back to
Chaghaniyan. After some time, he left the region and tried to obtain support from other
Samanid vassals. Meanwhile, Nuh had Chaghaniyan ravaged and its capital sacked. Another battle
shortly ensured between Abu ‘Ali Chaghani and a Samanid army in Tukharistan, which resulted
in a Samanid victory. Fortunately for Abu Ali Chaghani, he managed to secure the support
of other Samanid vassals, such as the rulers of Khuttal, and the Kumiji mountain people,
but in the end made peace with Nuh, who allowed him to keep Chaghaniyan in return for sending
his son Abu’l Muzaffar Abdallah as hostage to Bukhara. Alp Tigin, nominal vassal of the Samanids,
conquered Ghazna in 962 from the Lawik dynasty. The fifth of these commanders was Sebüktigin,
who governed Ḡazna for twenty years till 387/997 with the title (as it appears from
his tomb inscription,) of al-ḥājeb al-ajall (most noble commander). He would later be
the founder of an independent dynasty based in Ghazna, following the decline of the Samanid
Empire in the 990s.===Decline and fall (961–999)===
The power of the Samanids began to crumble in the latter half of the 10th century. In
962, one the ghulams, Alp Tigin, commander of the army in Khorasan, seized Ghazna and
established himself there. His successors, however, including Sebük Tigin, continued
to rule as Samanid “governors”. With the weakened Samanids facing rising challenges from the
Karakhanids for control of Transoxiana, Sebük later took control of all the provinces south
of the Oxus and established the Ghaznavid Empire.
In 992, a Karakhanid, Harun Bughra Khan, grandson of the paramount tribal chief of the Karluk
confederation Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan, captured Bukhara, the Samanid capital. Harun died shortly
afterwards, however, and the Samanids returned to Bukhara. In 999, Nasr b. Ali, a nephew
of Harun, returned and took possession of Bukhara, meeting little resistance. The Samanid
domains were split up between the Ghaznavids, who gained Khorasan and Afghanistan, and the
Karakhanids, who received Transoxiana; the Oxus River thus became the boundary between
the two rival empires.===Isma’il Muntasir’s attempt to resurrect
the Samanid state (1000–1005)===Isma’il Muntasir was the youngest son of Nuh
II—he was imprisoned by the Karakhanids after their conquest of Bukhara in 999. Some
time later, Isma’il managed to escape to Khwarazm, where he gained support. Driving the Karakhanids
out of Bukhara, he then moved on to and captured Samarkand. The approach of the Karakhanid
army, however, forced Isma’il to give up all of his possessions, following which he travelled
to Khorasan, where he captured Nishapur. Mahmud’s army, however, made its way to the region,
and Isma’il decided it necessary to flee again. In 1003 Isma’il came back to Transoxiana,
where he requested for and received assistance from the Oghuz Turks of the Zarafshan valley.
They defeated the Karakhanids in several battles, even when Nasr Khan was involved. For various
reasons, however, Isma’il came to feel that he could not rely on the Oghuz to restore
him, so he went back to Khorasan. He tried to gain Mahmud’s support for a campaign to
restore the Samanid state, but failed. Some time afterwards, he returned to the Zarafshan
valley, where he gained the support of the Oghuz and others. A Karakhanid army was defeated
in May 1004, but subsequently the Oghuz deserted Isma’il during another battle, and his army
fell apart. Fleeing to Khorasan yet again, Isma’il attempted
to reenter Transoxiana in the end of 1004. The Karakhanids stopped this and Isma’il was
nearly killed. Following this, he sought the hospitality of an Arab tribe near Merv. Their
chief, however, killed Isma’il in 1005. His death marked the defeat of the last attempt
to restore the Samanid state. Descendants of the Samanid family continued to live in
Transoxiana where they were well regarded, but their power was relatively broken.==Culture=====Government=======Structure====The system of the Samanid state was modelled
after the Abbasid system, which in turn was modelled after the Sasanian system. The ruler
of the state was the amir, and the provinces were governed by appointed governors or local
vassal rulers. The main responsibility of both governors and local rulers was to collect
taxes and support the Samanid ruler with troops if needed. The most important province in
the Samanid Empire was Khorasan, which was in the start given to a relative of the Samanid
ruler or a local Iranian prince (such as the Muhtajids), while it was later given to one
of his most trusted slaves. The governor of Khorasan was normally the sipah-salar (commander-in-chief).Like
in the Abbasid Caliphate, Turkic slaves could in the Samanid state rise to high offices,
which would sometimes result the Turkic slaves usurp power, almost making the ruler their
puppet.====The nature of political authority under
the Samanids=======Cultural and religious efforts===The Samanids revived Persian culture by patronizing
Rudaki, Bal’ami and Daqiqi. The Samanids determinedly propagated Sunni Islam, and repressed Ismaili
Shiism but were more tolerant of Twelver Shiism. Islamic architecture and Islamo-Persian culture
was spread deep into the heart of Central Asia by the Samanids. Following the first
complete translation of the Qur’an into Persian, during the 9th century, populations under
the Samanid empire began accepting Islam in significant numbers.Through zealous missionary
work as many as 30,000 tents of Turks came to profess Islam and later under the Ghaznavids
more than 55,000 under the Hanafi school of thought. The mass conversion of the Turks
to Islam eventually led to a growing influence of the Ghaznavids, who would later rule the
region. Agriculture and trading were the economic
basis of Samanid State. The Samanids were heavily involved in trading – even with
Europe, as thousands of Samanid coins that have been found in the Baltic and Scandinavian
countries testify.Another lasting contribution of the Samanids to the history of Islamic
art is the pottery known as Samanid Epigraphic Ware: plates, bowls, and pitchers fired in
a white slip and decorated only with calligraphy, often elegantly and rhythmically written.
The Arabic phrases used in this calligraphy are generally more or less generic well wishes,
or Islamic admonitions to good table manners.===Scholarship=======Avicenna and Abu Rayhan al-Biruni=======
Literature===In the 9th and 10th centuries, there was a
large amount of growth in literature, mostly in poetry. It was during the Samanid period
that Persian literature appeared in Transoxania and was formally recognized. The advancement
of an Islamic New Persian literature thus started in Transoxiana and Khorasan instead
of Fars, the homeland of the Persians. The best known poets of the Samanid period were
Rudaki (d. 941), Daqiqi (d. 977) and Ferdowsi (d. 1020).Although Persian was the most favorable
language, Arabic continued to enjoy a high status and was still popular among the members
of the Samanid family. For example, al-Tha’alibi wrote an Arabic anthology named Yatimat al-dahr
(“The Unique Pearl”). The fourth section of the anthology included a detailed account
of the poets that lived under the Samanids. It also states that the poets of Khwarazm
mostly wrote in Arabic.The acknowledged founder of Persian classical poetry, and a man of
great perception, was Rudaki, who was born in the village of Panjrudak, which is today
part of the Panjakent District in Tajikistan. Rudaki was already becoming popular during
his early years, due to his poems, his voice, and his great skill in using the chang (an
Iranian instrument similar to the harp). He was shortly invited to the Samanid court,
where he stayed almost the rest of his life. Only less than 2,000 of his poetry lines have
survived, but are enough to prove his great poetic skills—he perfected every basic verse
forms of medieval Persian poetry; mathnawi, qasida, ghazal and ruba’i. Another prominent poet was Shahid Balkhi,
born in the village of Jakhudanak near Balkh. Not much is known about his life, but he is
mentioned as being one of the best poets in the court of Nasr II, and one of the best
scholars of the age. He was also a student of Rudaki, and had close relations with him.
He died in 936, a few years before Rudaki’s death. His death saddened Rudaki, who afterwards
wrote an emotional elegy about him.Daqiqi, who was a native of Tus, began his career
at the court of the Muhtajid ruler Abu’l Muzaffar ibn Muhammad in Chaghaniyan, and was later
invited to the Samanid court. Under the Samanids, ancient Iranian legends and heroic traditions
were taken in special interest, thus inspiring Daqiqi to write the Shahnameh (“The Book of
Kings”), a long epic poem based on the history of the Iranians. However, by his death in
977, he had only managed to complete a small part of it, which was about the conflict between
Gushtasp and Arjasp.However, the most prominent poet of that age, was Ferdowsi—he was born
in Tus in 940 to a dehqan family. It was during his youth that there was a period of growth
under the Samanids. The rapid growth of interest in ancient Iranian history made him continue
the work of Daqiqi, completing the Shahnameh in 994, only a few years before the fall of
the Samanid Empire. He later completed a second version of the Shahnameh in 1010, which he
presented to the Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud. However, his work was not as appreciated by
the Ghaznavids as it was by the Samanids.===Music======Population===
Under the Samanid Empire, the Zarafshan valley, Kashka Darya and Usrushana were populated
by Sogdians; Tukharistan by the Bactrians; Khwarezm by the Khwarazmians; the Ferghana
valley by the Ferghanans; southern Khorasan by Khorasanians; and the Pamir mountains and
its surroundings by the Saka and other early Iranian peoples. All these groups were of
Iranian ethnicity and spoke dialects of Middle Iranian and New Persian. In the words of Negmatov,
“they were the basis for the emergence and gradual consolidation of what became an Eastern
Persian-Tajik ethnic identity.”===
Language===Ferghana, Samarkand, and Bukhara were starting
to be linguistically Persianized in originally Khwarazmian and Sogdian areas during Samanid
rule. The Persian language spread and led to the extinction of Eastern Iranian languages
like Bactrian, Khwarezmian with only a tiny amount of Sogdian descended Yaghnobi speakers
remaining among the now Persian-speaking Tajik population of Central Asia, due to the fact
that the Arab-Islamic army which invaded Central Asia also included some Persians who later
governed the region like the Samanids. Persian was rooted into Central Asia by the Samanids.===Intellectual life===
In the 9th and 10th centuries, intellectual life in Transoxania and Khorasan reached a
high level. In the words of N.N. Negmatov, “It was inevitable that the local Samanid
dynasty, seeking support among its literate classes, should cultivate and promote local
cultural traditions, literacy and literature.”The main Samanid towns – Bukhara, Samarkand,
Balkh, Merv, Nishapur, Khujand, Bunjikath, Hulbuk, Termez and others, became the major
cultural centres under the state. Scholars, poets, artists and other men of education
from many Muslim countries assembled in the Samanid capital of Bukhara, where a rich soil
was created for the prosper of creative thought, thus making it one of the most distinguished
cultural centres of the Eastern world. An outstanding library known as Siwān al-hikma
(“Storehouse of Wisdom”) was put together in Bukhara, known for its various types of
books.===Economy=======Agriculture========Mining========Crafts========Material culture========Domestic and external trade======Legacy==
In commending the Samanids, the epic Persian poet Ferdowsi says of them: کجا آن بزرگان ساسانیان
ز بهرامیان تا به سامانیان “Where have all the great Sasanians gone?
From the Bahrāmids to the Samanids what has come upon?” A Bukharian historian writing in 943 stated
that Ismail Samani: “was indeed worthy and right for padishahship. He was an intelligent,
just, compassionate person, one possessing reason and prescience…he
conducted affairs with justice and good ethics. Whoever tyrannized people he would punish…In
affairs of state he was always impartial.” The celebrated scholar Nizam al-Mulk, in his
famous work Siyasatnama, stated that Ismail Samani: “was extremely just, and his good
qualities were many. He had pure faith in God (to Him be power and glory) and he was
generous to the poor – to name only one of his notable virtues.
The Somoni currency of Tajikistan is named after the Samanids. A notable airline based
in Dushanbe is also named Somon Air. Also, the highest mountain in Tajikistan and in
the former Soviet Union is named after Ismail Samani. The mountain was formerly known as
“Stalin Peak” and “Communism Peak” but in 1998 the name was officially changed to Ismoil
Somoni Peak.==Samanid rulers====See also==
Iranian Intermezzo List of Iranian dynasties and countries
List of kings of Iran List of Sunni Muslim dynasties==References====Sources==
Bosworth, C.E. (1968). “The Development of Persian Culture under the Early Ghaznavids”.
Iran. Taylor & Francis. 6. Daniel, Elton. (2001) The History of Iran
(The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations) Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30731-8,
ISBN 978-0-313-30731-7 Frye, R. N. (1975). “The Sāmānids”. In Frye,
R. N. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 136–161. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6.
Bosworth, C. Edmund (1984). “AḤMAD B. SAHL B. HĀŠEM”. Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. I,
Fasc. 6. London et al.: C. Edmund Bosworth. pp. 643–644.
Houtsma, M. Th (1993). First Encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913–1936. Brill. pp. 579–1203.
ISBN 9789004097964. Bosworth, C. Edmund (2011). The Ornament of
Histories: A History of the Eastern Islamic Lands AD 650–1041: The Persian Text of Abu
Sa’id ‘Abd Al-Hayy Gardizi. I.B.Tauris. pp. 1–169. ISBN 9781848853539.
Shapur Shahbazi, A. (2005). “SASANIAN DYNASTY”. Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Retrieved
23 January 2016. Bosworth, C. Edmund (1984). “ĀL-E MOḤTĀJ”.
Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc. 7. London et al.: C. Edmund Bosworth. pp. 764–766.
B. A. Litvinsky, Ahmad Hasan Dani (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia:
Age of Achievement, A.D. 750 to the end of the 15th-century. UNESCO. ISBN 9789231032110.

One Reply to “Samanid Empire | Wikipedia audio article”

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