February 1, 2020 0

Arabic Grammar: The ‘maSdar’ (Verbal Noun), Part 3: Derived Forms VI-X المصدر

Arabic Grammar: The ‘maSdar’ (Verbal Noun), Part 3: Derived Forms VI-X المصدر


Ahlan wa sahlan! This is our second
video on the derived forms of verbs and ‘maSdars.’ As we mentioned in the
last video, tradition dictates that we number the derived forms using Roman
numerals. We talked about II through V last time, and here we see VI
through X. And the underlying principle is exactly the same, right? We have to
identify that جذر, that tri-consonantal root, and then we can slip it into ‘maSdar’
form, right. So here we have a couple of examples of actual words and again ‘faa-‘ayn-laam’ in all these examples are just placeholders, at the moment, for the
meaningful judhrs that we’re going to work with. So here we have some
conjugated present tense verbs: يتبادل, ‘to exchange back and forth,’ so if we want
to turn that into a مصدر, we need to identify our جذر, right we see that the
‘yaa’ and the ‘taa’ are not our important three-letter root letters, so we can
eliminate those, and the ‘alif’ as well is just part of the وزن, part of the form
so we identify baa, daal, laam, as our جذر, and now we want to talk about
exchanging,’ the idea, and pop it into that’ مصدر .form like so all right the red is our exoskeleton, and
the black represents our actual جذر. Then notice that we have a
‘Damma,’ here for form VI, right? Form VII, we have a verb ينقطع,
‘to be cut off.’ Sometimes people wonder why we have these derived forms, and they
do express certain shades of meaning having to do with though the root. Form
VII is always always reflexive, or passive, right, ينقطع, that means ‘to be
cut off,’ we would use a different form to talk about ‘cutting something off.’ So if
we want to turn it into our مصدر, we would identify that root, right, what are
we going to swap out with the ‘faa-‘ayn-laam,’ what’s the meaningful جذر, and in
this case it’s ‘qaaf, Taa, ‘ayn,’ so we wind up with الانقطاع A mnemonic some people use is that form VII has the ‘nuun.’ A ‘seveN’ with the ‘nuun letter ‘n,’ we have kind of a sound harmony that some
people find useful. A little trick. Form VIII, يستمع meaning ‘to listen,’ to
listen to something, if we want to turn it into our مصدر, we have to
identify that جذر, which is ‘siin-miim-‘ayn,’ and we wind up with استماع الاستماع, listening.’ form IX is very very’
rare, and in fact a lot of popular textbooks don’t even teach it to
students, because it’s only used to refer to ‘colors and defects,’ that’s what we say
in English. Something ‘turning brown,’ or ‘to be one-eyed,’ or ‘to have a
twisted foot,’ rather strange verbs like that. You don’t encounter it terribly
often, but one example that you might realistically expect to encounter at
some point in your life would be يحمرّ, ‘to be or become red,’ especially
in the face, right, ‘to blush.’ It’s a verb that you do actually see very
occasionally. So if we want to pop it into our مصدر, remember that we
have this ‘shadda’ which represents a doubled letter, so in order, you’ll notice
in order to turn it into a مصدر, that doubled last letter of the root is
actually separated, so we wind up with ‘ha Meem,’ and then the ‘raa’ which has that ‘shadda,’ الاحمرار ‘Blushing, reddening, getting red.’ Finally
Form X, we’ve got a lot of extra letters in this derived form, but the principle
is exactly the same: يستمتع, ‘to enjoy,’ and we notice that, very conveniently
unlike a lot of these others, our root letters are all lined up at the end of
the conjugated verb. So we can say ‘miim, taa, ‘ayn,’ and our مصدر is الاستمتاع.

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