January 14, 2020 0

Arabic Grammar: Negating Future Actions in Modern Standard Arabic using ‘Lan’ لن

Arabic Grammar:  Negating Future Actions in Modern Standard Arabic using ‘Lan’ لن


SabaaH al-ward! Right now we’re going to
talk about how to negate verbs in the future, using the particle لَن. If you
watched our video about the future tense, you know that ordinarily, in order to
create an affirmative sentence referring to the future, we can use one of two
particles, we can either use سَـ, which attaches directly to our default present
tense form of the verb, المضارع المرفوع, or else we can use the
particle سَوفَ right before. And they’re identical in meaning. So, some
example sentences: ‘I will go to the office.’ سأذهب إلى المكتب Or ‘you will
study.’ Now let’s say we’re speaking to a woman. You will study now.’ ستدريسن الآن or ‘they will travel
to Beirut.’ let’s use سوف for a change of pace. . سوف يسافرون إلى بيروت Note that if we’re using سَـ or سَوفَ, to
talk about the affirmative future, if we wanted to fully vocalize these sentences
for some reason, we would be using our default form of the present tense, المضارع المرفوع, so سأذهبُ, ستدرسينَ or سوف يسافرونَ, right? Now if
we wanted to turn these affirmative sentences into negative sentences, what
we’re going to do is remove سَـ or سَوفَ, and put لَن in front of the verb. And we
need to use لَن in combination with المضارع المنصوب Again, we have our three conjugated
present tense verb forms, here, مرفوع, منصوب and مجزوم, so we’re going to need
to substitute منصوب for مرفوع here and in most cases the change is going to
be pretty minor, right? Just that final vowel, so instead of سأذهبُ, if I want to say ‘no, I will not go to the office,’ I would instead say لَن أذهبَ إلى المكتب Here instead of سَتدرسين, you will study, I use لَن, and as we can see here for أنتِ we lose our final
‘nuun,’ so we’re left with just a ‘yaa’ in our منصوب form. لَن تدرسي الآن And
here, we’re going to lose سوفَ, replace it with لَن, لَن يسافرون in مرفوع, but we
need to replace it with منصوب using this template again, with our formal word
for to do, but we can apply that template to any other verb, like يسافر or يسافرون, and we wind up with يسافروا إلى بيروت… لن يسافروا إلى بيروت. One thing you should be careful to avoid doing is using لا
before سَـ. That’s a common mistake, but we really do need to use the لَن particle
and to focus on changing the verb. And once again, this is a structure that’s
unique to العربية الفصحى, formal written Arabic, MSA. Colloquials tend to
have other structures, and we talk about that in our future tense video, and
the negation videos a bit. But if you’re writing in formal Arabic, this is how we
need to negate the future verbs.

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