September 9, 2019 0

Arabic Grammar: Creating Multi-Clause Sentences With ‘anna’ and ‘inna’ in MSA أنَّ‫/إنَّ‬

SabaaH al-kheir! In this video we’re going to talk about the sentence compliments أنّ and إنّ and how we use them in formal Arabic. In Arabic these words functions similarly to the English conjunction ‘that,’ in sentences like these: ‘James says that his friend is a professor,’ or ‘we understand that you are busy,’ ‘I know that you want to study engineering.’ In English, we can usually get away with skipping these conjunctions, especially in speech, right? Functionally there isn’t much difference between ‘James says that his friend is a professor,’ and ‘James says his friend is a professor.’ In Arabic, however we don’t usually omit it, and in formal Arabic, as a matter of fact we need to use it when we’re constructing this kind of multi-clause sentence. This is a list of some verbs that you might know that can use أنّ in this kind of sentence, and you’ll notice that the verb for ‘to say,’ يقول takes a slightly modified form: it has إنّ instead of أنّ‪,‬ so we have the ‘hamza’ on the bottom with a ‘kasra,’ and the ‘i’ sound instead of the ‘a’ sound. So if we wanted to translate one of these, for example let’s take the sentence about James, ‘James says,’ you start with this verb ‘that his friend is a professor.’ In Arabic we need to follow أنّ and إنّ with a جملة اسمية‪,‬ right‪,‬ a nominal sentence so we could say ‘James yaquul inna…’ and now we need a جملة اسمية, right with a مبتدأ and a خبر, a subject and predicate. صديقه أستاذ‪.‬ So now we have a complete ‘jumla ismiyya.’ صديقه is our مبتدأ the subject of our جملة اسمية, and ‘ustaadh’ is the ‘khabar,’ the information. Who is he, what is he? Why do we care? ‘Huwa ustaadh.’ Now, what we want to use a pronoun? In that case, we still need that جملة اسمية, that nominal sentence and what we need to do is attach a suffix to ‘anna’ or ‘inna.’ Now if you’ve studied لأنّ, one of the words that we can use to express ‘because’ in Arabic, you remember that we attach suffixes that are almost identical to the possessive suffixes, and as a matter of fact لأنّ, that word meaning ‘because,’ is a combination of the conjunction لِـ and the words we’re talking about right now, أنّ. So we attach those suffixes in exactly the same way, and over here we have a little chart of those suffixes that we would use. So if we take our second sentence, ‘we understand that you are busy,’ we’d start with that verb, نفهم ‘that you…’ let’s assume that it’s a singular masculine ‘you’ that we’re talking about, so we start with our أنّ and then we need to attach that pronounو which is going to be أنّكَ. So now this ـك is functioning as the ‘mubtada’, right, the subject of our ‘jumla ismiyya,’ our nominative sentence, so then we just need our خبر which would be ‘mashghoul,’ busy, نفهم أنّك مشغول. Now, if our second clause after Anna also requires a conjugated verb or two in Arabic, then we still need to have that nominative sentence, right we still need to begin with a noun or a pronoun. So this third sentence, for example ‘I know that you want to study engineering,’ and let’s make that ‘you,’ a female let’s suppose that we’re addressing a woman here, we would say أعرف and then the ‘that you,’ again we’re going to need that suffix attached to أنّ، أنّكِ ‘ki’ because we’re talking to a woman, ‘you want to study engineering,’ so ‘ki’ is our subject, representing أنت, and now we’re going to use a conjugated verb as though we’re saying أنت so ‘you want,’ we would say أنتِ تريدين, but we don’t need أنت because we have our modified pronoun here, أنّك تريدين ‘you want to study,’ now we remember that in a formal Arabic sentence like this, we’re going to use a different particle, أنّك تريدين أن تدريس الهندسة So here, we have really a complete sentence, and because we need, again to have a nominal sentence after ‘anna,’ we need to include that pronoun, we need to lead with the pronoun, or the noun after ‘anna.’ We could skip all of this and have a perfectly good جملة فعلية, a verbal sentence, right ‘you want to study engineering,’ but within the larger context of the sentence, we need to include ‘anna’ and that pronoun. One thing to bear in mind is that أنّ and أنْ look very similar when they’re written down, right? Ordinarily in normal print, we’re probably not going to see our vowel markings, we’re not going to see ‘fatha’ or ‘sukuun,’ we might not even see that ‘shadda,’ right? ‘an’ and ‘anna’ could look virtually identical, which is why it’s a good idea as you’re learning verbs to sort of associate the particle, the relevant particle, ‘anna’ or ‘an’ with the appropriate verb, right? Verbs like يريد or يحبّ tend to take ‘an,’ that ‘to’ particle, whereas these verbs over here, that involve kind of presenting information tend more often to have ‘anna’ following them

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