Ahlan wa sahlan! Right now, I want to talk about hollow verbs in derived Arabic verb patterns. For this video, I’m operating on the assumption that you understand basic verb conjugation, and how derived أوزان work, and Also how form I hollow verbs work. That will come in handy. If you a refresher on any of those topics, there are separate videos on each of them. You can go and take a look at before you come back here. So the good news is that for a majority of the derived verb patterns, II to X the واو or ياء that is the middle letter of the root, of the جذر functions just like a consonant, which means there’s no deviation from the normal ‘assembly instructions’ for regular verbs. For forms II, III, V, VI, and IX, that’s exactly what you see here. I’ve taken an example for each form and put them in there, and as you can see We have a ‘waaw’ or a ‘yaa’, I guess just one ‘yaa’, but they’re occupying the place that any other consonant would, and they’re functioning exactly like any consonant would. And there’s no difference in terms of what a ‘waaw’ does in these derived forms, and what a ‘yaa’ does in these derived forms. That’s the great thing about derived verb patterns. Once we get the hang of them, is they tend to be very very consistent from one example to the next. I’d like to point out that, for example, كوّن, this verb meaning ‘to put together’ and تغيّر, this verb meaning ‘to change, internally,’ they both have alternate versions in these different forms. So if we wanted to take the جذر ‘kaaf-waaw-nuun,’ and put it into Form V, it would work exactly the same. تكوّن– we would keep our ‘waaw’ because the ‘waaw’ is the real letter of the جذر. Or for example if you wanted to talk about تغيّر, a more transitive kind of change, we could put it into form II and it would look like this: غيّر. Same down the line with these five examples. No need to worry about letters shifting, or morphing–sort of break from the normal things we can expect from hollow verbs. Now, where things get a little different is with these remaining forms: II, VIII… Excuse me, II, VII, VIII, and X. Each of them has a couple of idiosyncrasies that it’s worth paying attention to. The first thing that’s different is also true for form I hollow verbs. In all of the first and second person past tense conjugations, we’re going to drop the middle letter of the جذر, so if you think of كان, a verb you probably know, you know that if you’re conjugating it for first person singular, you drop that vowel, and you wind up with كُنتُ. Same thing with all of these, except that we don’t need to worry about any unpredictable vowels there. We’re just going to drop the middle letter. So for example in this form IV verb أثار, which can mean kind of ‘to incite or stir up’ someone or something, أثار is the هو conjugation, but if I were writing it about أنا I would write أَثَرْتُ Or this form VIII verb, احتاج, meaning ‘to need something,’ I would write احتَجتُ, so we’re dropping that ‘alif’ that is the letter of the جذر, the middle letter, and this is what we wind up with. Another difference is that it forms IV and X, that middle vowel, whether it’s actually a ‘waaw’ or a ‘yaa’ in its Form I pattern in any conjugation, is going to bend to the will of the derived form, as it were, and it’s always going to follow a certain, very regular pattern. In the third-person past, that vowel is always going to be ‘alif’ if it’s there, unless it disappears under the circumstances we just described, and in the present tense, it’s always going to be a ‘yaa,’ in Form IV or X. That’s just how things work. And you can think of it, again, as these vowels, the short vowels, kind of inflicting themselves, if you will, on that middle vowel. So the middle vowel here, in أثار that جذر is actually ‘faa-waaw-raa’ But the ‘waaw’ is not something that we’re ever going to see in this pattern, because of the influence of the pattern upon it. And another little idiosyncracy that you might notice, is that in the مصدر, we always add a ‘taa marbuuta’ to the end. That’s true all the way down line with any hollow verb in form IV or form X. We’re always going to put a ‘taa marbuuta’ at the end of the مصدر. VII and VIII also kind of share the same differences, so speak. As with IV and X, we’re going to have an ‘alif’ in the past tense, if we have it, and it’s always going to be an ‘alif,’ no matter what the actual letter of the جذر is, and in contrast to IV and X, in present tense, with VII and VIII, it’s going to stay an ‘alif’ actually for any conjugation in the present tense of a hollow verb in form VII or VIII, we’re going to have that alif. The ‘waaw’ or the ‘yaa’ of the جذر is just going to look like an ‘alif’ in the present tense. And finally, in the مصدر, It’s going to be represented as a yet. You can see that we’ve added a ‘yaa’ here. Remember that vowels, ‘waaw,’ yaa,’ alif,’ and even ‘hamza’ are like chameleons in Arabic: they can shift and change, and so it’s up to us to know when to be able to predict these things. So the good news is in VII or VIII, a hollow verb مصدر is always going to have that ‘yaa’ as a representative, if you will, of the letter that makes it hollow. So to take another example, احتاج، يحتاج the جذؤ is actually ‘7aa-waaw-jiim.’ Even though we never see a ‘waaw’ in there, the ‘waaw’ is present, is kind of in a latent form. If we wanted instead to use the جذر ‘khaa-yaa-raa’ we would follow the same template exactly. Which means that you only ever see that ‘yaa’ in the مصدر. So the past tense for هو would be اختار just like احتاج, we retain that ‘alif,’ and in the present tense, it would also be يختار With an ‘alif’ same deal, and then finally if we were talking about ‘choosing,’ اختار/يختار means ‘to choose,’ I guess I didn’t mention that yet, we would have الاختيار where once again, that ‘yaa’ of the جذر becomes its true form once more, just by dint of circumstance, just because that’s the pattern. Now, the more difficult way to internalize these differences, and really these are the only differences, these are pretty regular–the difficult way to do that would be to look at this chart, and think ‘okay, I need to memorize all this in the abstract.’ A better way, in my opinion, would be just pick specific verbs, perhaps these, perhaps other verbs that you know that happen to be hollow verbs in each of these أوزان, and make sure that you have a ready command of them, or if you spot one, if you’re learning new vocabulary, for example and you spot one that fits one of these patterns, then make that your template of these verbs, of these little differences. And that way when you encounter other verbs or when you need to construct a hollow verb in a derived pattern on the fly, you’ll have that example sitting in your pocket waiting for you. That would be my suggestion. But also recognize that just because encounter a ‘waaw’ or a ‘yaa’ in a derived verb doesn’t mean that things are necessarily going to be odd or idiosyncratic most of the time. They will function exactly as we might expect with a normal derived verb.